In early esophageal carcinomas, a distinction is made between Barrett's esophagus (adenocarcinoma, approx. 30% of diagnoses) and squamous cell carcinoma (approx. 70% of diagnoses). The genesis is different, untreated both lead to esophageal cancer with often fatal complications. If diagnosed in time, the treating gastroenterologist has several treatment options at his or her disposal, enabling him or her to avoid complications in the course of the disease and to achieve a cure.
If it is a Barett's esophagus, affected regions of the esophagus are usually removed by endoscopic submucosal resection (EMR). In the case of early squamous cell carcinoma, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a suitable endoscopic procedure for the removal of affected tissue areas.